中国第一座电影院 中国电影诞生的第二年,即光绪三

  中国电影诞生的第二年,即光绪三十二年(1906) 12月8日,天津权仙茶园便开始放映电影,影片是美国平安电影商人从海外运来的,每3日更换一次影片,每晚9点到11点放映,男女分坐。可以容纳二三百位观众。楼下有几十条长板凳,票价3角~5角;楼上是雅座,票价1元。影片内容主要是世界各地的风光片和滑稽短剧片。影片放后,加演外国魔术和歌舞表演。

  权仙茶园是利用旧仓库改建而成的,位于原法租界紫竹林葛公使路与巴黎路交口处的权仙电车站旁,实际是以放映电影为主的电影院。它比西班牙商人安·雷玛斯,于光绪三十四年(1908) 12月22日,在上海海宁路与乍浦路口建成的虹口活动影戏院早2年。可以说,权仙茶园是中国最早的电影院。

  此后,天津人周紫云对权仙茶园进行改造,用白布制作了银幕,并且利用早年在法商百代公司电影机械部任职的有利条件,使用百代公司的法国造手摇式放映机等放映设备,于宣统元年(1909)闰二月十二日,建成 “新权仙电影茶园”开业,这可以说是中国第一家中外合资电影院。同时,周紫云还成立了权仙电影公司。

  在很多资料中,把中国第一家电影院称为“上权仙茶园” ,这是不准确的。上权仙茶园,是1914年,周紫云建造的又一座新的电影院。地址在南市东兴大街,后来的群英影院斜对过,租用的是东兴房地产公司的地皮。中国的传统,将北称为上,将南称为下,南市东兴大街在紫竹林的北面,所以称为“上权仙” 。

  上权仙影院是中国古建筑形式,开业后生意兴隆。同时,在影院北侧与人合资联建了西餐馆,名 “洋饭店” 。1917年,洋饭店失火,饭店与影院全部被焚毁。

  1918年,周紫云用保险赔款及多方筹集的资金,在南市荣业大街(后来的淮海影院址),改建起新“上权仙电影院” 。为砖木结构,2层楼,楼上为包厢,楼下池座为长条椅子,营业比较好。

  ·天仙茶园

  1935年,周紫云侄子周恩玉,接任新上权仙电影院经理。20世纪40年代,“上权仙” 曾与小蘑菇(常宝堃)的兄弟剧团签订合同,在电影场后加演曲艺、话剧。吸引了大批观众,使 “上权仙”得到中兴。

  1952年,上权仙影院改为国营,为纪念淮海战役胜利更名淮海影院。20世纪50~60年代,南市一带只此一家甲级影院,业务较好。1976年有损停业。1979年,国家投资53万元进行重建,1981年开业。能放映普通银幕、宽银幕、立体宽银幕电影。

  1992年重新翻修改造,建成豪华特级影院。一、二楼部分租给日商经营。成为改革开放后,天津市电影行业第一家中外合资单位,集电影、录像、卡拉OK等为一体的大型豪华娱乐场所。1997年3月,因为荣业大街拓路工程,淮海影院被拆除一部分 (563平方米),影院全面停业。

  The next year after the birth of Chinese film,that is,1906 (the 32nd year of Emperor Guangxu),QuanxianTeahouse began to play films. Films were transportedfrom abroad by Ping`an Film Business of the UnitedStates. Films were played from 21:00 to 23:00 everyday,one film was played for about three days,then anew film would be played instead. Balconies for menin the teahouse were separated from those for women.The teahouse could accommodate an audience of aroundthree hundred in number. There were dozens of longbenches downstairs. Audience on the benches wascharged three to five Jiao. Upstairs there were balconiesin which each seat was charged one Yuan. Most filmswere scenery around the world or short comedies.Foreign magic,singing and dancing were also performedafter the film.

  ·上平安茶园

  Quanxian Teahouse was reconstructed from anold warehouse. It was located near Quanxian trolleybusstation in the cross between Paris Road and ZizhulinGegongshi Road in French concession. The teahousewas a film playing and opera performing place,whosepursuit was profit. It was an indoor performance placecombined performers and audience within one building.Quanxian Teahouse mainly played films. It was openfor film playing two years earlier than Hongkou Cinemalocated near the cross between Haining Road and ZhapuRoad in Shanghai,because the latter was foundedby a Spanish businessman Ann Rimas in December22,1908 (the 34th year of Emperor Guangxu). Therefore,Quanxian Teahouse can be said as the earliest cinema inChina.

  Mr. Zhou Ziyun,a Tianjin local,reconstructedQuanxian Teahouse. He made screens with white cloth.As he had been employed in Film Machinery Departmentin French Baidai Company,he played films using hand-bioscope made by Baidai company. In February 12,1909(the first year of Emperor Xuantong),the New QuanxianFilm Teahouse was opened to service. This can beregarded as the first joint cinema in China. At the sametime,Mr. Zhou Ziyun founded Quanxian Film Company.

  In many documents,the first cinema in Chinawas mistaken as Shangquanxian Teahouse. Actually,Shangquanxian Teahouse was another cinema ZhouZiyun built in 1914. It was located in Dongxin Streetin the south of the city,opposite to the later QunyingCinema,whose land was rented from Songxing RealEstate Company. Because,in Chinese tradition,northis called as Shang (up) and south as Xia (down),also because Dongxin Street in the south of the citywas to the north of Zizhulin,this cinema was calledShangquanxian.

  Shangquanxian Cinema was in terms of its styleChinese of typical. Business boomed after its opening toservice. Zhou Ziyun,together with somebody else,builta western restaurant in the north of the cinema,calledWestern Restaurant. In 1917,Western Restaurant caughtfire that destroyed both the cinema and the restaurant.

  In 1918,with the indemnity from insurancecompany and funds raised,Zhou Ziyun built a newShangquanxian Cinema in Rongye Street in the south ofthe city (the address of Huaihai Cinema in later times).The new cinema was of brick-timber construction. It hadtwostories.Upstairstherewerebalconiesanddownstairslong benches.It ran well. According to the report ofYishi Newspaper in June 8,1921,"film developedquickly and flourishingly. Cinemas in the south of thecity and in French concession were all very crowded. "

  In 1935,the nephew of Zhou Ziyun,Zhou Enyutook over the management of the new ShangquanxianCinema.

  In 1952 Shangquanxian Cinema was restructuredinto state-owned cinema. It was renamed as HuaihaiCinema to memorize Huanhai Campaign. In 1979 thegovernment invested 530 thousand Yuan to rebuild it andthe rebuilt cinema opened to service in 1981. It couldplay common-screen,wide-screen,dimensional wide-screen films.

  In 1992 the cinema was renovated into a luxurioussuper cinema. The first and second floors were rented toJapanese businessmen. The cinema became the first jointunit in Tianjin film industry. It was a large luxuriousrecreation place with film,video and Karaoke etc. InMarch 1997,part of the cinema was removed (about 563square meters),and it had to close its business becauseof the widening of Rongye Street.

  ·1939年建的西权仙电影院

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